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16 Sep 2022

Different Types of Batteries used in EV vehicles

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Skill-Lync

Different Types of Batteries used in EV

 

The invention of batteries in 1800 marked the beginning of many advancements today. A massive milestone was the invention of the first rechargeable battery in 1859. Today, almost every device from wristwatches to electric vehicles is powered by batteries, the source of direct current. 

Depending upon the material of cathode and anode, the properties of batteries vary and make them fit for a specific application. Let us dive into the different types of EV batteries.

 

1. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) Battery

Discovered in the early 90s, the Li-ion battery beats all other batteries, in terms of, efficiency. Mobile phones, laptops and many portable electronic devices use Li-ion batteries. Carbon as an anode and Lithium as a cathode can generate the required potential difference.

Lithium-ion is the most common battery that can be found in electric vehicles. Because of its high energy-to-unit mass, it is chosen as an EV vehicle battery. They are light in weight and have a low self-discharge level, which means it does not discharges energy in idle conditions. Most of today's Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles deploy Li-ion batteries to power the motor. The Lithium-ion battery could be recycled with minimum wastage. But still, companies lack a proper plan to recover those used batteries. Today majority of the batteries used in EV vehicles use Lithium which has also increased the demand for Lithium. Only 2-3% of used batteries in Australia are sent for recycling purposes. The US Department of Energy secretary Rick Perry announced the establishment of the ReCell centre to recycle Li-ion batteries with an investment of $15 million

 

2. Lead Acid Battery

The lead acid battery was predominantly used in Electric Vehicles. The Frenchman Gaston Planté invented the lead acid battery in 1860. It was used as an EV vehicle battery till the 80s. It is low in cost and has good efficiency. But this technology has vanished with the arrival of new technology, the Lithium-ion battery. Lead acid batteries are heavier and have a low energy density compared to Li-ion batteries. Still, Lead acid batteries are used for low-power applications and power backup applications.

Types of Batteries used in EV vehicles

3. Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) Battery

Though Nickel-Cadmium batteries had exceptional energy density and high efficiency, they had a low cycle life. Invented in 1899, the NiCd battery dominated the market till the early 90s. Most applications used NiCd batteries because of their superior properties. Despite its superior properties, it is not preferred for modern electric vehicles. They were used as EV car batteries during the 90s but were soon banned because of their toxicity. The manufacturing process was also expensive, which made researchers look into alternatives.

 

4. Nickel-Metal Hydride (NIMH) Battery

NIMH batteries are a modified version of Nickel Cadmium batteries. NIMH was patented in 1989, finding its applications in Mild HEV (Hybrid vehicles that use batteries to boost the performance of internal combustion engines) and low orbit satellites. It has a charging capacity of 2x to 3x times and an extended battery life of up to 40 times that of a Nickel-Cadmium battery.

Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries are used in MHEV, which does not require an external source for charging. It is charged only by the regenerative braking mechanism. The regenerative braking mechanism converts some kinetic energy to heat while applying brakes. And this recovered heat is used to charge the battery. NIMH batteries have a high self-discharge rate, yet they are used in Hybrid vehicles as they are much safer and the probability of explosion is relatively low. NIMH batteries are sufficient for smaller battery applications to meet the requirements and are cheaper than Li-ion batteries. Toyota, one of the major players, continues to use NIMH batteries for their HEV, while many other players switch between Li-ion and NIMH.

 

EV Battery Manufacturers

The world shifting towards e-mobility has become fortunate for battery manufacturers worldwide. In 2020, around 87% of batteries used for EVs came from six major EV battery companies,

  • BYD
  • CATL
  • LG Energy Solution
  • Panasonic
  • Samsung SDI
  • SK Innovation

 

Currently, the EV battery market is booming and is forecasted to show a 19% CAGR by 2027. According to Bloomberg, the demand for EV batteries may surge up to 17x times by 2030. CATL, a Chinese battery manufacturer, remains in the top position among the EV vehicle battery manufacturers by selling over 70.9-gigawatt hours worth of batteries in the first half of 2022. As more and more electric vehicles are rolling out in the market, the demand for EV batteries and Lithium tends to rise. It has become a wise option for battery manufacturers to invest in supplying the growing demand. The Exide industries have planned to invest INR 60 billion to set up a Lithium cell manufacturing unit in India. 

The International Energy Agency report says the global demand for EV vehicle batteries is 340 GWH which may rise to 3500 GWH by 2030. Extensive research is taking place to improve the efficiency of EV car batteries, and investments are being made to cater for the growing demand.

To know more about the battery technology of EVs, pursue the battery technology course offered by Skill-Lync. It will give you a basic idea of how a battery pack is designed, ensuring the safety of passengers. Also, you can unlock our free EV course to learn how electric vehicles work. It would equip you with knowledge of a major trend in the automobile sector.


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Anup KumarH S


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