PG Certification Program in Embedded Systems for EV Applications

A 6 month program to help understand everything you need to know about embedded systems

  • Domain : ELECTRICAL
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Program Overview

The modern world is transforming into a digitally connected and automated environment and this becomes possible only with the help of Embedded Systems. Almost everything we use in our daily life is an application of embedded systems. Few examples of embedded systems are listed below

  • Air-conditioners
  • Washing Machines and Dishwashers
  • GPS Navigation Devices
  • Automobile Systems etc.

Embedded Systems are developed to execute a specific task. It is a microcontroller/microprocessor-based computer hardware with software. It operates either as an autonomous system or as a member of a huge system. Based on the function an embedded system is designed to perform, its complexity varies. 

From the above examples, it is obvious that the applications of embedded systems can be seen in multiple domains. This is because of the various advantages these devices offer. Few advantages are listed below

  • Primarily, these systems are fast and consume less power.
  • These systems are convenient for mass production.
  • They are highly stable and reliable.
  • Size of these systems are small.
  • Also, they improve the quality of the product.

Embedded Systems is an ever-blooming field and the opportunities in this field have grown exponentially in recent years. Everyday, we see new gadgets in the market that are designed to save time and ease our life. The “PG Certification Program in Embedded Systems for EV Applications” is designed for those who aspire to pursue their career and thrive in this domain. Through this course, you can get your basics strong and apply them in real-world applications. This program offers 13 courses which are as follows:

  1. Embedded C Essentials
  2. AVR with Arduino API
  3. AVR Bare Metal Programming
  4. ARM Cortex MCU Programming
  5. ARM Peripheral and Driver Development
  6. RTOS on ARM
  7. Embedded Linux in ARM
  8. Linux Device Driver Development
  9. Simulink for Engineers
  10. Introduction to HEV using MATLAB and Simulink
  11. Digital control of Power converters with C2000 using Altair Embed
  12. Battery Management System & FOTA
  13. Model Based Embedded Development with Arduino using Altair Embed

 


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List of courses under Embedded software development

11. Embedded C Essentials

  • The lectures in this course will refresh you with the basics of C Language that you have already learnt during your high school, such as the bitwise operators, storage classes, preprocessor directives, conditional compilation, functions, pointers, structure union, file handling, dynamic memory allocation, command line arguments, etc. 
  • A complete review on Data Structures and its implementation is given as all the embedded systems need to store data in a systematic manner. 
  • The bridge between embedded C and C programming language is explained and it is also shown how C plays a major role in Embedded systems as well as in certain critical applications.
  • An introduction to MISRA C guidelines is explained as it aims to facilitate code safety, security, portability and reliability in the context of embedded systems and other concepts of C such as modular programming and make utility and debugging which are exposed.
  • The topics covered in this course are:
    • Bitwise Operators, storage classes,Preprocessor directives,Conditional Compilation
    • Functions
    • Pointers
    • Structure Union
    • File Handling
    • Dynamic Memory allocation
    • Command Line Arguments
    • Data Structures Implementation
    • Modular Programming and Make Utility
    • Concepts of Debugging
    • Introduction to MISRA C guidelines

2AVR with Arduino API

  • In this course, electronic components used in embedded systems are explained such as DIO , Analog, Serial Communication, Delay Generation Connecting Sensors and Actuators to AVR peripherals, Timer, PWM, Serial Communication and Interrupt, Project Signal Processing/Control Application
  • An exercise on design is given to the students which helps them learn these concepts with fun. The students are asked to exhibit their ideas by creating a quick prototype. This makes the session interactive.
  • The introduction and fundamentals of ARM is explained. 
  • The following topics are explained in this course:
    • DIO,Analog,Serial Communication,Delay Generation
    • Connecting Sensors and Actutors to AVR peripherals
    • DIO,Analog,Timer,PWM,Serial Communication and Interrupt

3AVR Bare Metal Programming

  • Bare metal programming is often referred to as programming without the assistance of an operating system in a microcontroller/embedded system, Arduino IDE is one such example. Lectures related to this topic helps you understand in detail about the microcontroller on chip peripherals such as Serial communication, EEPROM
  • The Data Sheets explain the microcontrollers capabilities, electrical and mechanical characteristics, and the peripherals it contains and how to interact with these along with the register interface provided. The usage of Data Sheet for writing 8 bit Microcontroller Drivers is taught.
  • The topics covered in this course are:
    • Reading Datasheets
    • DIO,ADC,TIMER
    • SERIAL Communication,EEPROM

4ARM Cortex MCU Programming

  • In this course, you will learn how to set up an environment for the microcontroller, study in depth the core microprocessor features, internal architecture of ARM Cortex M3/M4. The architecture of memory and stack, the study of interrupts and exception handling is being practiced so as to use these concepts in BSP.
  • A board support package (BSP) is essential code for a particular computer hardware device which makes the device work with the computer's OS (operating system). This consists of a small program called a boot loader or boot manager that places the OS and device drivers into memory, concepts and examples of BSP are explained
  • The topics covered in this course are:
    • Setting Up the Environment
    • Internal Architecture of ARM Cortex M3/M4
    • Board Supporting Package Examples
    • Memory Architecture and Stack
    • Interrupts and Exception Handling
    • OS feature of Cortex M3/M4

5ARM Peripheral and Driver Development

  • A tour on the hardware and software components and the setting up of the hardware/software environment along with the driver implementation such as GPIO, Serial Communication (UART, I2C, SPI), CAN driver implementation.
  • Introduction to the hardware abstraction layer (HAL), this helps the computer OS to communicate with the hardware device at an abstract level. 
  • The CCU helps the system with the power unit and hence the modes of supply to the embedded system is learnt.
  • Lectures on other communication prototypes such as LIN, Flexray, Ethernet, J1939, XCP are explained.
  • A complete description of the CAN is demonstrated as communication takes place without the presence of the host computer, this is used in automotive and industrial applications. The basic Protocols, driver implementation, data analysis tool, and CAN nodes simulation 
  • A task is given for students as they familiarize with the writing device drivers for 32 - bit microcontrollers. 
  • The topics covered in this program are:
    • Setting Up Hardware S/w Environment
    • Understanding MCU Memory, clock,Interfaces
    • GPIO Driver Implementation
    • Serial Communication Driver Implementation (UART,I2C,SPI)
    • Introduction to Hardware Abstraction Layer
    • GPT ,CCU,PWM
    • Interrupts Powermodes,DMA
    • CAN Protocol Basics
    • CAN Driver Implementation
    • Lectures on Other Communication Protocol (LIN,Flexray,Ethernet,J1939,XCP)
    • Introduction to CAN Data Analysis tools
    • CAN Nodes Simulation

6RTOS on ARM

  • RTOS is a real time operating system that helps in real time applications, wherein the data gets processed as and when it comes in. These are the topics covered under RTOS on ARM which will give you a strong interpretation on how the OS works and helps you understand the basics of RTOS - Introduction to RTOS (FreeRTOS), basic OS Concepts, real time Kernel on ARM Processor, boot Sequence, setting up the FreeRTOS Environment, installing Debugging tools, FreeRTOS Task Creation.
  • The output by learning these topics help you to interlink the usage of free RTOS with ARM
  • Context switching, scheduling algorithms, threads and control blocks, queue management,  are the terms which help the RTOS to function
  • The topics covered in this course are:
    • Intoduction to RTOS (FreeRTOS)
    • Basic OS Concepts
    • Real time Kernal on ARM Processor
    • Boot Sequence
    • Setting up the FreeRTOS Environment,installing Debugging tools
    • FreeRTOS Task Creation
    • Threads,Thread Control Block,
    • Schedular,Scheduling Algorithm
    • Context Switching
    • Os Porting Consideration
    • Kernel Style Coding
    • Task State, Interrupt Priority,Hook Function
    • Scheduling policies
    • Queue Management
    • Semaphore and Mutual Exclusion

7Embedded Linux in ARM

  • An embedded Linux refers to a situation where an embedded system works on an operating system based on the Linux kernel. The topics which will be covered are the following:
  • The topics covered in this course are:
    • Linux Architechture
    • Embedded Development Environment, Tool Chain Config
    • Platform Functional block overview
    • Linux Booting Process,Linux Device Tree
    • Busy Box
    • Buildroot
    • Introduction to Embedded System Application
    • SBC GPIO headers and mode config registers
    • Interfacing GPIO Components to SBC
    • I2C interfacing,Understanding DDRAM
  • Once you cover these topics, you will be able to port LINUX in SBC and create embedded applications based on LINUX. 

8Linux Device Driver Development

  • The Linux driver is developed with the help of C Language, in a different form and not the C that we use in our codes. While the driver is a program running in the kernel, we use the library functions in the kernel.
  • These are the topics that are covered in this course
    1. Fundamentals of Linux kernel modules, 
    2. User Space Debugging, 
    3. Kernel Programming, 
    4. Character Device Driver Development, 
    5. Platform bus, Platform driver, Platform Driver implementation, 
    6. Device Tree nodes, Overlays, Linux Driver model, 
    7. Embedded Linux Using Yocto, 
    8. Block Device Driver,SP, I2C Driver, 
    9. USB Device Driver,
    10. Network Device Driver, 
    11. Memory management and Synchronization in kernel programming, 
    12. Linux System Calls
  • The students are asked to implement a Character Device driver to ensure 
  • Once the following topics are covered you will be well versed with Linux device driver development.


9. Simulink for Engineers-Syllabus

1 Introduction to modelling of complex systems

  • Importance of mathematical modelling
  • Block diagram approach & model-based design for engineering systems
  • Introduction to Simulink environment
  • Creating a simple model
  • Obtaining results
  • Introduction to various Simulink toolboxes

2Simulation configurations & Simscape

  • How does a model run in Simulink?
  • Types of solvers
  • Model configuration
  • Continuous & discrete-time systems
  • Timestep
  • Solving ODE
  • Introduction to physical modelling using simscape

3Simulink with script and workspace

  • Using a script file with Simulink models
  • Creating a subsystem
  • Variant subsystem
  • Projects
  • Template
  • lookup tables
  • Running simulation in steps

4Stateflow for control logic

  • Control logic for engineering applications
  • Using a finite state machine
  • Making logic diagrams


Projects Overview

Simulation

Highlights

Carry out a system-level simulation of an all-terrain vehicle.
 
Prepare a technical report explaining the model properties & comments on the results.

10. Introduction to HEV using MATLAB and Simulink-Syllabus

1Traction Power Equations, Driving Cycle & Importance of Modelling

The fundamentals of vehicle design involve the basic principles of physics. The vehicle motion can be completely determined by analysing the forces acting on it in the direction of motion.The response of the vehicle for different drive cycle patterns along with wide-open throttle calculations are discussed in this session.

  • Vehicle power requirement calculations: Rolling resistance, air drag, hill climbing and acceleration forces
  • Driving patterns and vehicle testing standards, important terms and definitions related to driving cycle, Energy expenditure calculation

2Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architectures

The General EV and HEV configuration is proposed unequivocally. The generic concept of a hybrid drivetrain and possible energy flow route helps to understand the challenges of battery charging and power consumption. The advanced simulator tool (ADVISOR tool) gives an idea of a detailed profile for vehicle modeling and reasoning.

  • Different configurations of power train components: Battery Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Series, Parallel and Series-Parallel 
  • MATLAB Simulation: ADVISOR and Powertrain block set
  • Various modelling options, Control strategies 

3Electric Motors & Power Converters for Propulsion

In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver that power to the road. In hybrid powertrains, the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor has to be brought together and distributed to the wheels. The control of this power flow is discussed along with the working of electric motors.

Electrical engineering terminologies, Fundamentals of DC and AC motors: working principle, characteristics, and control.


  • Understanding power electronics, basic DC converter circuit operation, power devices, switching losses 
  • Power electronic control of PMDC, PMBLDC and induction motor
  • Inverter operation, Sine PWM, Variable frequency control
  • Review of induction motor controller, connections and features, limitations of variable frequency control, introduction to vector control 

4Braking of Electrical Motors & Motor Efficiency Plots

Moving vehicles have a lot of kinetic energy, and when brakes are applied to slow a vehicle, all of that kinetic energy has to go somewhere. Regenerative braking uses an electric vehicle’s motor as a generator to convert much of the kinetic energy lost when decelerating back into stored energy in the vehicle’s battery. To evaluate regenerative braking, we really need to look at two different parameters, efficiency and effectiveness.


  • Braking requirements of vehicle, Methods of braking of DC & Induction motors: regenerative braking and dynamic braking  
  • Coordinating electrical and mechanical brakes, braking control strategies


Projects Overview

Electric Powertrain

Highlights

  •  Estimate the duty cycle range to control the aircraft speed from zero to highest.
  • Make all required assumptions. Prepare a table of assumed parameters.
  • Draw a block diagram of a power train.
  • Search and list out the total weight of various types of aircraft.
  • Is there any difference between ground speed and airspeed?
  • Why is it not recommended to use aircraft engine power to move it on the ground at the Airport?
  • How does an aircraft get pushed to the runway when it's ready to take off? 
  • Learn about take-off power, tyre design, rolling resistance, tyre pressure, brake forces when landing.
  • With necessary assumptions, calculate the force and power required to push/pull an aircraft by a towing vehicle.
The project objective is to design an electric powertrain that is capable of towing an aircraft. The project delineates the take-off power, tyre specifications, and forces acting on aircraft. The procedure of taxing of aircraft is thought- through. The duty cycle range should be assumed for a minimum to maximum operating region and powertrain blocks ets should be designed accordingly. The assumptions of motor and controller parameters should be documented too

MATLAB model

Highlights

 Choose suitable blocks from the Powertrain block set. Prepare a report about your model including the following:

Objectives 
  •  System-level configurations:    Understanding the global structure of the model 
  •  Model parameters: Model the tires, brakes, wheels, model the battery, model the motor
  •  Results: Run the simulation with a specific drive cycle
  •  Conclusion: Analyze the results and document
The full car drivetrain simulation encompasses all the basic methods of driveline modeling and many key Simscape™ Driveline™ features. It includes motor and transmission models and a model of the drivetrain-wheel-road coupling. The transmission feeds its output torque to the final drive subsystem, Vehicle Body. The subsystem can represent the vehicle inertia (the load on the transmission), the wheels, the brakes, the driving conditions, and the wheel contact with the road. Modeling of lithium-ion battery can be represented as a subsystem with its Soc and temperature-dependent blocks
 

11. Digital control of Power converters with C2000 using Altair Embed-Syllabus

1 Introduction to motors for electric vehicles

The topics that will be covered in this segment are –

  • Electric vehicle architectures
  • Types of electric motor for propulsion
  • Motor sizing
  • Factors affecting choice of motor for EVs

2 Working principle & Mathematical model of Permanent magnet motor

  • Equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque equation of PM DC motor
  • Operating characteristics
  • Mathematical modelling using MATLAB & simulink
  • Chopper circuit & its control
  • Limitation of brushed type PM motor

3Control requirements of BLDC & PMSM drives

  • Three phase system & Transformation theory

  • Clark’s and Park’s transformation

  •  

    Principle of operation

  • Electronic commutation

  • Torque production

  • Mathematical model of PMBLDC and PMSM motors

4Power converter hardware

  • Background of digital control in power electronics
  • Three phase inverter circuit configuration
  • Speed and current sensors

5Introduction to embedded system

  • Working of a programmable device
  • Internal memory and peripherals
  • Different programming methods
  • Popular hardware targets for power converter control applications

6Architecture of 32-bit micro controller unit

  • Need for high end microcontroller based control

  • Texas Instruments C2000 family MCU for motor control

  • Overview of C2000 hardware architecture

  • Introduction to programming 

7Pulse width modulation module and its programming

  • Important features
  • Time period and duty cycle calculations
  • Sub modules and configuration
  • Review of software API
  • Simulink model and configuration

8Analog to digital converter module and its programming

  • Important features
  • Block diagram
  • Sample & hold
  • Start & end of conversion
  • Review of software API
  • Simulink model and configuration

9Control implementation and modeling of electric vehicle drive

  • Control strategies for BLDC and PMSM
  • Open loop & closed loop control
  • PWM-Hysteresis-space vector control methods
  • Modeling control method using Simulink
  • Electric vehicle drive cycle simulation

10Simulink embedded coder support for C2000

  • Simulink environment for embedded programming
  • Using embedded coder for motor control application
  • Hardware in the loop setup & results


12. Battery Management System & FOTA-Syllabus

1Battery Management System Requirements

  • Introduction and BMS functionality.

  • Why BMS?

  • Block Diagram of Typical BMS.

  • Basic Functionalities Of BMS

  • Li-ion Battery properties

  • Cell Voltage Monitor

  • Cell Voltage Balancing

  • Fuel gauge monitor

  • Temp monitors

2MCU Requirements

  • ARM Cortex M3/M4 Architecture

  • STM32F4 Discovery

  • S32K144/S32K146/S32K148

  • Some basic GPIO coding experiment in ARM Cortex M4 MCU

3Interfacing sensors with MCU

  • Communication Protocols we used in Battery Management System.

  • UART

  • SPI

  • I2C

  • CAN

4Functional Blocks of BMS

  • Real-time clock (RTC)

  • Temperature monitors

  • Hands on experience on understanding the datasheet and writting the generic driver file for RTC.

  • PCF85363A Tiny Real-Time Clock

5Functional Blocks of BMS Part 2

  • Cutoff FETs & FET Drivers

  • Fuel gauge monitor

  • Hands on experience on reading the datasheet for fuel guage monitor IC.

  • Understanding the datasheet of LTC6811-2 IC from Analog Devices.

  • Understanding the datasheet of LTC2944 IC from Analog Devices.

6Functional Blocks of BMS Part 3

  • Cell voltage monitor

  • Cell voltage balance

  • Types of balancing

  • Active balancing

  • Passive balancing

  • How we can implement passive balancing

  • Understanding one Voltage Monitor IC datsheet.

7RTOS

  • Task Create

  • Task Control

  • Semaphore

  • Mutex

  • Queue

  • Some Practicals Coding examples for RTOS.

  • Semaphore Example

  • Mutex Example

8MQTT & HTTP Protocols for OTA Update

  • TCP/IP Config

  • SSL Config

  • MQTT Config

  • MQTT Open

  • MQTT Subscribe

  • MQTT Publish

     

  • HTTP Config

  • HTTP Connect

  • HTTP Disconnect

  • Practicals coding examples for MQTT & HTTP using Quectel LTE Module

9Quectel GSM/GPRS and GNSS modules

  • GPS Satellites in view

  • Global Positioning System Fix Data

  • Track Made Good and Ground Speed

  • Recommended Minimum Specific GPS/TRANSIT Data

  • GPS DOP and Active Satellites

  • Practical coding examples for GSM/GPRS and GNSS module, and how we can fetch the co-ordinates from raw data.

10AWS in BMS

  • Amazon AWS

  • Amazon EC2

  • Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

  • AWS Lambda

  • Practical real life case study and use of Amazon AWS for Firmware Update and Data Logger.

11Bootloader in BMS

  • Boot loader

  • Normal OTA Update

  • A/B Swap OTA Update

  • Understanding the flash memory where we can store the bootloader

  • Whole working block diagram of Bootloader

  • Understanding the whole working principle for Bootloader and Firmware. 

12 Interview Preparation

  • Embedded C/C++ Questions

  • ARM Architecture Based Questions

  • CAN, I2C, SPI, and UART.

  • RTOS based questions.

  • Multiple choice coding questions

  • Interview questions

  • Coding test questions


Projects Overview

Project 1

Highlights

Through this project, you will get a better understanding about:

  • UART Interfacing sample code for ARM Cortex M4 series MCU.
  • SPI Interfacing sample code for ARM Cortex M4 series MCU.
  • I2C Interfacing sample code for ARM Cortex M4 series MCU.
  • How we can write the code for these protocols

Project 2

Highlights

Through this project, you will get a better understanding about

  • Uploading files in AWS Server using AWS S3
  • Downloading files from the server using HTTP Protocol
  • SREC Format
  • Fetching strings from SREC file line by line
  • Fetching firmware data and flash address from an SREC file and flash the data into an address

13. Model Based Embedded Development with Arduino using Altair Embed-Syllabus

1Basics of modelling and simulation - Introduction to Altair Embed

  • Why is modelling necessary?

  • Importance of simulation for engineering design

  • Application of embedded system

  • Components of an embedded system

  • Challenges with programming embedded system

  • Recent trends in programming embedded system

  • Getting started with Altair embed

  • Demo covering simulation features of Altair Embed

2Embedded system programming & hands on with Arduino Uno

  • Block diagram of an embedded system
  • Different methods of programming
  • An insight to Arduino Uno hardware platform
  • Hands on practice:
    • Using GPIO & blinking two LEDs
    • Changing LED intensity with PWM output
    • Reading room temperature with ADC input via serial terminal

3Mathematical modeling of simple systems

  • Creating compound block
  • Scalar to vector conversion
  • Data types and their conversion
  • Import and export
  • Adding expressions inside the diagram
  • Hands on practice:
    •  LED On-Off control based on temperature

4Control System modeling

  • Modeling simple and linear differential equation
  • A look at toolbox blocks
  • Transfer function and state space blocks
  • Root locus and frequency response
  • Concepts of Processor in loop (PIL) and Hardware in loop (HIL)
  • Hands on practice:
    • Speed control of DC motor with L293 driver


Projects Overview

Project

Highlights

Implement a 3 floor elevator concept using Arduino Uno with Altair Embed.

  • A small DC motor can carry the elevator cage to top or bottom by forward and reverse motion.
  • Users can call the elevator from any of the three floors by using push buttons. Top floor and the ground floor have one push button while the second floor has two push buttons, one for up and another for down.
  • The elevator operation is controlled by the operator by sending the “GO” & “STOP” keywords through the serial terminal.
  • Assume suitable height of each floor & linear speed of elevator for your project setup.
  • Explain your Altair embed diagram and show the demonstration of the elevator.

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