In today's world, domains like mechanical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, and naval architecture go hand-in-hand with computational tools. Software tools and applications are indispensable in every form of engineering because they simplify several processes, help us carry out accurate calculations, and run simulations that would otherwise be too expensive to try out in the real world.
The field of structural engineering is a subdivision of civil engineering where engineers focus on the stability, strength, and rigidity of structures. Structural engineers should understand when to use which material to build a structure, what geometry it should have, and other such factors. There are some specialized software packages to assist these engineers in their work, one of which is ETABS.
Along with STAAD Pro and ProtaStructure, ETABS is one of the most powerful software tools for structural analysis. 3D modeling, visualization, and automatic code-based learning are some of the unique features of this software. ETABS also supports several analytical models like response spectrum analysis, time-history analysis, and line direct integration time-history analysis.
Compared to the other structural engineering software packages available in the market, ETABS has several advantages. Here are some of them:
Thanks to these features, ETABS is used by most structural engineers and architecture firms across the world.
The first part of the course covers an introduction to ETABS usage. You get to learn about the various components on the ETABS screen and how to use the grids for modeling (similar to any other computer-aided design or CAD software).
Then, you learn how to define the various parameters that structural engineers use for modeling and analysis (for example: how to load samples in certain structures like beams or slabs, how to give supports, etc.). Assigning of parameters and creating the model is the primary step, and incorrectly doing this could spoil all the analysis that follows.
The last part of this module covers the drawing aspects of various ETABS elements. By the end of this, you should have the fundamental knowledge of how to build a model, including answers to questions like, "Why should meshing be done?", "How to draw beams and how to draw slabs?" "How to give labels?" and so on.
In the next module, you get hands-on experience in building a 3D model. Using the ETABS grids and the other CAD tools available, you can design a structure in the software, thereby getting a good idea of the theory and its application.
You can also check the model you built: the joints must be connected properly, the diaphragms should be assigned correctly, and other warnings or errors should be rectified at this stage.
The procedure followed for the linear static analysis is per the IS 1893 (Part 1): 2016 standard. In this module, you have to define the various parameters associated with the linear static earthquake analysis, like the time period, zone factor, and the range of impact.
Once you cross this stage, you should also interpret and analyze the result you get and come to a meaningful conclusion.
For dynamic analysis, the same standard, IS 1893 (Part 1): 2016, is followed. Here, you need to calculate the natural time period or frequency of the building or the structure of interest with the help of modal averages.
Using these values, you then calculate the peak response time of the structure using a spectrum acceleration curve. In the end, you need to analyze the results, check for errors and warnings, and frame a conclusion.
A structure usually handles various forms of forces and loads, one of which is the force of moving wind. Unlike earthquakes, which are relatively rare occurrences, a structure's interaction with wind is a daily phenomenon.
The main factor that distinguishes different regions in India is the average wind speed. Based on this number, as well as building parameters like the height and area, you should calculate the force field of the wind on the structure. You will learn how to perform this calculation using the ETABS software.
P-Delta analysis is a type of secondary analysis that captures the softening effect of compressive forces and the stiffening effect of tensile loads, especially in the lateral directions (i.e., not gravitational forces).
If an axial force, P, displaces a part of the structure by a small amount, delta, the total moment, P multiplied by delta (hence the name), must be taken into consideration for all structural analysis calculations.
The course also covers the modeling and analysis of pre-engineering buildings, i.e., buildings where the individual components are manufactured elsewhere and are directly assembled at the site.
Since this structure is essentially a collection of built-up parts, the structural analysis is not the same as that of a regular structure. You learn how to define different parameters and tweak the calculations for wind and earthquake analysis.
From a simple two-bedroom house to the Burj Khalifa, every structure ever built needed the assistance and guidance of structural engineers. If you are interested in structural engineering, knowing an overview of ETABS and other such structural analysis packages can vastly enhance your job prospects.
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