Basics of FEA - Explicit and Implicit FEA

Basics of FEA - Explicit and Implicit FEA

A comprehensive course on Basics of FEA using practical examples and calculations. This course is highly suited for beginners

  • Domain : CAE
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A Quick Overview

Basics of FEA is a course that will cover all the theoretical and mathematical aspects of FEA. It includes the discussion over analytical approaches like newton-raphson technique, weighted residual methods, central difference method etc. Further, basic ideas of methodologies used like plane stress and plane strain condition for solving a structural mechanics problem are discussed in brief. Formulation and application of 1d element, 2D element and 3D element is discussed in detail. Also, different prospects related to material modelling and different forms of materials used in engineering application are discussed in detail. Various mathematical techniques involved in calculating the crashworthiness parameters and basic equations of motion are discussed in the course. All the analytical knowledge gained is further discussed from an application point of view with the aid of ANSYS software.


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1Introduction to FEA

  • What is FEA? and Why FEA?
  • Advantages and industrial applications of FEA
  • Different types of FEA analysis
  • Pre-requisites of FEA
  • Basics of Approximate and Exact solution methods

2Methods of FEA

  • Weighted residual techniques
  • Basics of Petrov-Galerkian 
  • Potential energy approaches

3Basics of FEA

  • Meshing/Discretization
  • Types of Elements in FEA
  • Terminologies like Nodes, Elements etc.
  • Introduction to Stiffness matrix, Plane stress and Plane strain conditions

41D Element (Bar element)

  • Stiffness Matrix of 1D element
  • Nodal Displacements
  • Nodal DOF
  • Stress and Strain Calculations
  • Shape functions
  • Homogenization of Problems
  • Case study Problem

52D Element

Stiffness Matrix of 2D element

  • Nodal Displacements
  • Nodal DOF
  • Stress and Strain Calculations
  • Shape functions
  • Stiffness matrix of CST elements

63D Element and FEA characteristics

  • Stiffness Matrix of higher order 1D element
  • Stiffness Matrix of LST element
  •  Stiffness Matrix of 3D element
  • Nodal Displacements
  • Different non-linearities in FEA
  • Basic types of material models
  • Factors influencing Solution of FEA

7Basics of ANSYS

  • Introduction to ANSYS
  • Material Models
  • Meshing techniques
  • Solving Simple Static Problems

8Equations of Motion

  • Study of Basic Equations of Motions
  • Mass Matrix, Stiffness Matrix
  • Time dependance of Analysis
  • Physics of Crash
  • Study of Mathematics related to Crash

9Explicit and Implicit FEA

  • What are Explicit and Implicit analysis
  • Basic Applications
  • Advantages and disadvantages of methods
  • Difference between Explicit and implicit methods
  • Time steps, Hourglassing and Contacts Used
  • Mathematical approaches used by Explicit and Implicit analysis
  • Case Studies:
    • Hydroforming of Automotive Structures
    • Modelling of Shape memory alloys


  • Case Studies:
    • Crush Analysis of Square/rectangular Tube Using ANSYS
    • Impact of ball/Bullet on Steel thin Plate

Projects Overview

Project 1


A rigid ball impacting on a plate of Non-linear aluminium alloy of dimensions 100x100x5 mm is impacted with a ball of diameter 10 mm of steel material with a velocity of 50 m/s, 250 m/s and 500 m/s respectively. Mesh the model properly and assign the contact properties as required for development of the model. Find the total deformation of the plate also observe at which velocity the plate will be ruptured.

Project 2


Aluminium Tube is placed between one rigid wall and fixed at the bottom end. The moving rigid wall is made up of Steel material. Tube is assigned property of Aluminium non-linear alloy. Both the components are meshed appropriately and assigned proper contacts. Tube is having dimension 30mm diameter, 1 mm thickness and 200 mm length and rigid wall has 40x40x20 mm . The moving rigid wall has velocity of 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/s respectively.

Find the maximum deformation and stresses on the tube and compare the results.

Project 3


Study of cantilever beam of 1000 mm span with 1000 N load at the end with different cross-sections like circular, rectangular and I section (area equal to area of rectangle). To find out the effect of cross-section on the deflection of the beam. The problem has to be solved using FEA technique and results has to be verified using strength of material deflection equations. Circular cross-section radius = 50 mm, Rectangular cross-section = 50x50 mm. Material E = 210 GPa, μ = 0.3. Find the deflection.


  • Aspirants who are looking for career as CAE/FEA analyst in automotive industry
  • Aspirants looking for admission in higher education (MS/MTech & PhD)
  • Graduation, Post-graduation, and PhD students to enhance the quality of project work (simulation background)



ANSYS is a simulation software widely used in industrial applications. ANSYS is very widely used in the structural analysis of the mechanical structures for verifying the stability and strength of the structure. ANSYS is also used for performing drop tests in various mobile phone industries. ANSYS is also used as a platform for topology optimization, vibrational analysis in machine manufacturing industries. ANSYS also has a very wide application support and has a very wide customer database all over the world. 



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Frequently Asked Questions

1Who can take your course?

  • Aspirants who are looking for career as CAE/FEA analyst in automotive industry
  • Aspirants looking for admission in higher education (MS/MTech & PhD)
  • Graduation, Post-graduation, and PhD students to enhance the quality of project work (simulation background)

2What is included in your course?

  • Introduction to FEA and importance of FEA in automotive industry (crashworthiness analysis).
  • Different types of mesh elements used in FEA analysis and basic details of the elements.
  • Basic mathematical problems of 1D/2D elements and equations of crash analysis will be studied.
  • Explicit and Implicit analysis with different case studies
  • Introduction to LS-DYNA to solve explicit and implicit dynamic problems.

3What will the student gain from your course?

  • Basic Knowledge of meshing, element types, non-linearities, stiffness matrices etc.
  • Confidence of facing interview in automotive industry.
  • Hands-on experience on simulations in LS-DYNA.
  • Explicit and Implicit analysis techniques

4What software skills are you teaching and how well are these tools used in the industry?

  • LS-DYNA will be used. This software is widely used in automotive industries for simulating crash analysis, impact analysis etc.

5What is the real world application for the tools and techniques will you teach in this course?

  • LS-DYNA is widely used for various analysis in industry.
  • In automotive industry crash test simulations are majorly performed by LS-DYNA.
  • Along with this, High speed Impact analysis, Explosive (Blast) analysis in industries is performed by this software.
  • Basics knowledge of FEA is required for development of software and for writing own code.

6Which companies use these techniques and for what?

  • Over 80% Automotive OEMs use LS-DYNA as software for crash analysis.
  • General Motors – NVH, Crash analysis, Impact analysis
  • Bosch – Non-linear simulations
  • Service Industry- Altran, Faurecia, Kaizenet, TE connectivity, Xitadel and various other service-oriented industries in India use LS-DYNA for different applications (crash analysis, Impact analysis, Non-linear analysis, Dynamic analysis etc.)

7How is your course going to help me in my path to MS or PhD?

  • The course basically deals with the concepts of FEA and FEA is a basic pre-requisite of any advanced courses. Therefore, developing a strong hold in FEA concepts will always provide an edge over the other competitors. 
  • Furthermore, course is oriented towards the industrial aspects of FEA and development of knowledge base in such aspects will help writing proposals to the universities with an industry-oriented application. 
  • Basic concepts of FEA will be helpful in future endeavours (excelling in interview/ creating an excellent impression with professors) and developing codes for projects. 

8How is this course going to help me get a job?

  • Present scenario, Huge demand of FEA/CAE engineers, Pre-processing engineers and different specialist categories is there in the industry while the supply of skill-based engineers is relevantly low in number.
  • This course will help in developing the fundamentals of FEA which will be the first and most important step in induction into any above mentioned roles.
  • Some important tips and questions relevant to interview stages for FEA industry will be discussed during the duration of the course. 


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  • Top 5% of the class will get a merit certificate
  • Course completion certificates will be provided to all students
  • Build a professional portfolio
  • Automatically link your technical projects
  • E-verified profile that can be shared on LinkedIn


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