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Electrical

Uploaded on

27 Sep 2022

Difference Between the Powertrain of an ICE Vehicle and an Electric Vehicle

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Skill-Lync

Difference Between the Powertrain of an ICE Vehicle and an Electric Vehicle

 

The revving sound of the engine while accelerating makes the driver feel like a rider. A high revving sound comes from an engine with superior power. A common man can't realize how the power is transferred from the engine to the wheel. Only an engineer can understand the mechanism behind all the moving parts for a vehicle to set in motion. The mechanism that pulls the vehicle forward depends upon the powertrain system. 

 

What is Powertrain?

A powertrain is a system that is responsible for pulling the vehicle. A typical powertrain system consists of a power source, engine or motor, transmission, differentials and axles. Depending upon the type of vehicle, i.e. ICE engine powered or EV, the component of the powertrain system varies.

Today modern electric vehicles deploy a motor, which uses the chemical energy stored in the battery. The wheel is at the end of the powertrain system. The source of power that drives the wheel varies. The conventional way of powering the wheel is by deploying an ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) engine, which is operated by the explosive power of petrol or diesel in a vacuum. 

Compared to conventional vehicles' powertrain systems, the powertrain in EV has 60% fewer moving parts. 

 

Common differences between the EV powertrain and the ICE powertrain

Below are the differences between the EV powertrain and the ICE powertrain:

 

Power Source

The primary difference lies in the power source. An ICE engine lifts the fuel inside the cylinder with the help of a spark plug and pushes the piston. The piston, in turn, rotates the crankshaft. On the other hand, an electric vehicle discharges the energy stored in the battery to operate the motor. 

In an EV, the electrical energy from the battery is not directly supplied to the motor because most electric vehicles deploy an AC induction motor (Alternating Current) to drive the vehicle. The battery is a source of direct current, and the direct current is converted to an alternating current with the help of an inverter. The alternating current from the inverter is used to power the motor. 

The speed of the motor is controlled by regulating the frequency of the alternating current.

In an ICE engine, the throttle controls the engine's power by controlling the fuel-air mixture. 

 

Transmission System

 

Transmission System

 

Yet another crucial difference lies in the transmission system. The transmission system of the EV powertrain is much simpler than the ICE powertrain. While driving manual transmission cars and bikes, the driver has to keep shifting gears based on the speed. This is because the ICE engine can function with optimum efficiency at a certain range of RPM (Rotation Per Minute). An ICE engine produces maximum torque at low speed or during the start of the vehicle, and eventually, the torque reduces as the speed increases. Hence, a multiple-speed transmission system is needed.

In EV, the motor produces a constant torque at all RPM. Therefore only a single-speed transmission system is required for EVs.

The electric vehicle market is booming, and many manufacturers are stepping forward to make investments. Since EVs can contribute to sustainable development; therefore, governments are providing subsidies to encourage more buyers. The future of the automotive industry will be driven by e-mobility. In India, EV sales show a Y-o-Y growth of 610%. It is forecasted that by 2030, over 10 million jobs will be created in the EV sector. 

There is a huge scope for e-powertrain design engineers. The huge technology gap in designing the powertrain for EVs has provided many opportunities for engineers to bring in innovation. Skill-Lync's PG program on EVs will help you understand the key concepts in designing an electric vehicle. It will train you in industry-relevant tools like MATLAB, Simulink, SocketCAN, LINUX, C++, ANSYS Maxwell, Altium Designer and LTspice.

To learn more about the functioning of an electric vehicle, enroll now in the free EV course


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Anup KumarH S


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