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Electrical

Uploaded on

19 Jul 2022

Different Types of Electric Vehicles: BEVs, PHEVs, HEVs

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Skill-Lync

Different Types of Electric Vehicles

 

Electric vehicles are classified based on their battery types and features. An EV can be fully powered by an electric motor or could partially support an IC engine.

This article will cover all types of electric vehicles, including battery-powered ones EV, HEV (Hybrid Electrical Vehicle) and PHEV (Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). Let’s discuss the sub-types later in the article. 

 

Types of Electric Vehicle

 

Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle

MHEV uses a 48V battery and an electric motor to improve gas mileage and ICE (internal combustion engine) efficiency.

The difference between HEV and MHEV is that MHEV is not solely dependent on electric power. It can be turned off during coasting, stopping or braking. 

Another interesting feature about MHEV is when its ICE is turned off, the electric motor still can power the other features such as seat heaters and air conditioning.

 

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

It is the most common and oldest type of hybrid electric vehicle. It consists of 2 power drives, a battery-based electric motor and a fuel-based engine. As the car engine starts, the electric motor comes into play at first. Later on, as the vehicle achieves speed, the gasoline engine performs the rest of the driving task.

HEV has its own onboard computer system, which can decide when to switch between the IC engine and electric motor to power the vehicle. Electric batteries use a ‘regenerative braking’ mechanism in which batteries get recharged whenever the driver puts the brake. Hybrid and electric vehicle courses can give you advanced knowledge related to the same.

 

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

PHEV has mixed features from both BEV and HEV. PHEV possesses an external plug for electric motor charging like BEVs and a fuel-based internal combustion engine, the same as in HEV. But on a certain level, PHEV is different from HEV. This is because PHEV can cover almost 20-30 miles distance through electric power because it has a comparatively bigger battery, which you can recharge from the grid. 

Pursue PG in Hybrid Electric Vehicle course to get more information and career scope in the same.

 

Battery Electric Vehicle

As the name suggests, BEV is completely dependent on electrical power. No fuel engine and exhaust pipe. Alternatively, it has electric motors supported by an onboard battery. There is an external outlet available for users to charge the batteries. 

Companies like Ola Electric and Ather manufacture electric scooters powered by electric motors. Such electric scooters are noise-free and vibration-free when compared to conventional scooters.

 

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

A Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle is also fully powered by an electric motor. Unlike a normal electric vehicle, you have to recharge the vehicle's fuel cell using hydrogen gas.

 

 

Design Specifications of Electric Vehicles

 

BEVS, PHEVS, HEVS

 

  • Battery Capacity: One of the major differences in electric vehicles comes from its battery capacity. That is, how much distance its charged battery can cover. kWh (kilowatt-hours) is its measuring unit.

 

MHEV has a gas engine, so it is supported by only one battery of a kWh or less.

HEV has an almost 8 kWh battery that can last for a very long time compared to MHEV.

PHEV has a large battery of 15kWh capacity. It can drive the longest distance among all electric vehicles on the list.

BEV batteries range from 40kWh to 80kWh. As this vehicle is completely dependent on batteries, it must have a high battery capacity. 

 

  • Power source: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles do not need a specially designed power source. Which means PHEV has an inlet for AC (Alternative Current) and its onboard charger converts it to DC for battery charging. There is a Mode 2 charging cord, which can charge the vehicle from any household electricity source.

BEVs possess batteries with high capacity; hence they require about 8 hours for fully charging.

 

  • Charging speed and power: The charging speed and power plays a major role in EV selection. Modern electric vehicles deploy lithium-ion batteries for a faster charging rate. Electric vehicles with lead-acid batteries take about 8 hours for charging and have less power.

 

Final Words

Electric vehicles has become the buzz in automotive industry and many innovations are taking place. The electric vehicle sector is projected to grow upto ₹475 billion by 2025. Many new job opportunities are emerging in this sector. Over 723 jobs have been posted in LinkedIn for EV engineers. Grab a post-graduate certification in hybrid electric vehicle design and analysis from Skill-Lync. The EV course will equip you with the necessary software tools that are essential for a successful career as an EV engineer.


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Anup KumarH S


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