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04 Oct 2022

Top 10 AI and Machine Learning Interview Questions for the Job Hunters

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AI and Machine Learning Interview Questions

 

By implementing cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, businesses are attempting to increase the accessibility of information and enhance the services for consumers. These technologies are being increasingly adopted in a variety of business areas, including banking, finance, retail, manufacturing, and healthcare.

 

Some of the in-demand organisational roles that are embracing AI are data scientists, artificial intelligence engineers, machine learning engineers, and data analysts. It is essential to be aware of the types of machine learning interview questions that hiring managers could pose if you intend to apply for positions in this field.

 

In order to help you land your dream job, this post walks you through some of the AI and machine learning interview questions and responses you might have.

 

Top Interview Questions on Machine Learning

Here are a few machine learning engineer interview questions and answers frequently asked of job applicants during interviews.

 

1. Describe overfitting

Answer: When a model learns the training set too well, it can overfit and start to interpret random oscillations in the training data as concepts. These have an effect on how well the model generalises and don't apply to fresh data.

 

A model displays 100% accuracy when it is given the training data, which is technically a small loss. However, there could be a mistake and poor performance if we use the test data. This condition is known as overfitting.

 

Several measures can be taken to avoid overfitting:

  • Making a less complex model 
  • Apply cross-validation methods 
  • Regularization 

 

2. How do you pick a classifier considering the size of a training set?

Answer: A model with a right bias and low variance appears to perform better when the training set is small because they are less prone to overfit.

 

3. How Are Machine Learning Models Built? What Are the Three Steps?

Answer: Building a machine learning model involves the following three steps:

 

  • Building a model

Choosing a suitable algorithm for the model, then developing it to conform to the specifications.

 

  • Model Validation

The model's accuracy can be evaluated using the test data.

 

  • Use of the Model

Apply the resulting model to tasks in the actual world after making the necessary adjustments during testing.

It's important to remember that the model needs to be evaluated frequently to ensure that it is functioning effectively in this situation. To ensure that it is current, it should be changed.

 

4. Explain Deep Learning

Answer: Deep learning is a kind of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks to create systems that think and learn like people. The term "deep" refers to neural networks that might include more than one layer.

 

The manual process of feature engineering in machine learning is one of the key distinctions between both. The neural network model for deep learning will select the right features on its own (and which not to use).

 

This is a typical inquiry that appears in both machine learning interview questions.

 

Machine Learning with Python Interview Questions 

 

Top 10 AI and Machine Learning Interview Questions

 

1. Exactly how is a decision tree pruned?

Answer: Pruning is the process of removing branches from decision trees that have poor predictive power, which lowers the complexity of the model and improves forecast accuracy. You replace each node when you prune it, and you keep pruning until the predicted accuracy decreases.

 

2. What distinguishes the training set from the test set? Why do we just divide based on the dependent variable?

 

Answer: A subset of your data called the "training set" is used by your model to practise predicting the dependent variable using the independent variables. The test set, which is a complementary subset of the training set, is the basis for assessing your model's ability to accurately predict the dependent variable given the independent variables.

 

We split on the dependent variable because we want the values of the dependent variable to be evenly distributed between the training set and the test set. For instance, our model wouldn't be able to predict the future if the dependant variable in the training set had only the same value.

 

3. Describe some of the pre-processing methods used in Python to get the data ready

Answer: Mean removal: This feature entails taking the mean out of each feature and centering it on zero. The bias from the features is removed using mean removal.

 

Feature scaling: Each feature's value within a data point may range between two random values. Scaling them is crucial to ensure that they comply with the established rules.

 

Normalization is the process of altering the feature vector's values to put them on a similar scale. Here, a feature vector's values are changed so that they add up to 1.

A numerical feature vector is binarized into a Boolean vector using this technique.

 

4. What is PCA used for?

Answer: A dimensionality-reduction approach called PCA breaks down data into primary components (PC) using transforms. A set of observations of potentially correlated variables (entities that each take on different numerical values) are transformed using an orthogonal transformation into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables known as principal components.

 

5. Tell us about the purposes of variable selection

Answer: Three things are the three goals of variable selection:

 

Answer: Enhancing the predictors' ability to make accurate predictions, offering quicker and more affordable predictors, and offering a clearer understanding of the underlying process that produced the data.

 

6. Share your ideas about recall and precision

Answer: Recall, also referred to as the true positive rate, is the ratio between the number of positives your model predicts and the actual number of positives present over the entire set of data.

Precision is a measurement of the number of precise positives your model claims versus the number of positives it actually claims. It is also referred to as the positive predictive value.

 

Conclusion 

AI and Machine learning industry are at a booming stage and like to dominate other industries in near future. The market size of AI and ML is growing at a rate of 39.4%.

Applications of AI and ML can be found in many industries including finance, medicine, automotive and aerospace. Many opportunities are available for young talents in these sectors. The machine learning interview questions and answers will help you secure a job in this domain.

Skill-Lync offers machine learning course curated by industry experts to help you in your upskilling journey. Our course will help you get placed in IT giant companies like Tech Mahindra, HCL, OLA, Tata, etc.


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Anup KumarH S


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