Master's in Design for Crashworthiness and Analysis

An 8 month intensive program which provides complete knowledge on safety regulations, designing and analyzing models, the mechanism behind a crash, and the skills required for a simulation engineer

  • Domain : MECHANICAL
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Program Timeline

In olden times, a motor vehicle was considered a luxury, But, the times have changed now. We could witness how drastically the numbers have increased. With the increase in vehicle numbers, the chances of accidents also increase. So, the makers must keep in mind the safety of the passengers and design vehicles which are crashworthy. The technical term coined for it is Crashworthiness. It is theoretically defined as the ability of a vehicle structure to protect the occupants. 

The safety standards of the vehicles are kept in mind. These reflect even before manufacturing the units.  The manufacturers start by designing the vehicles and using simulation, the crash tests are virtually conducted. This saves a lot of money and time. This reason has made the industry completely adapt to Crashworthiness analysis. The designers performing these simulations must have a full understanding of the vehicle design, factors responsible for accidents, the impact that is going to act on the passengers, and the safety standards that the market demands.

This program provides complete knowledge on safety regulation, designing and analyzing models, the mechanism behind a crash, and the skills required for a simulation engineer. This program offers several courses that individually deal with various topics that are mentioned above. These courses are accompanied by projects where you will get hands-on experience that will help you stand out from the crowd.

Skill Lync brings to you an intensive program of 8 months duration with the following courses:

  1. Basics of FEA - Explicit and Implicit FEA
  2. Automotive Safety Standards
  3. Design for Crash & Score Calculation
  4. Crashworthiness Analysis using Hypermesh/Radioss
  5. LS DYNA for Structural Mechanics
  6. Assess safety systems that may benefit wide range of special conditions in FEM
  7. Structural Crash Modelling using ANSA, LS DYNA & Metapost

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1. Basics of FEA - Explicit and Implicit FEA

1Introduction to FEA

  • What is FEA? and Why FEA?
  • Advantages and industrial applications of FEA
  • Different types of FEA analysis
  • Pre-requisites of FEA
  • Basics of Approximate and Exact solution methods
  • Basics of differential equation solutions and Newton Raphson method (finite difference method)
  • Basics of Petrov-Galerkian and Potential energy approaches

2Methods of FEA

  • Basics of Petrov-Galerkian and Potential energy approaches (contd.)
  • Meshing/Discretization
  • Types of Elements in FEA
  • Terminologies like Nodes, Elements etc.
  • Introduction to Stiffness matrix, Plane stress and Plane strain conditions

31D Element (Bar element)

  • Stiffness Matrix of 1D element
  • Nodal Displacements
  • Nodal DOF
  • Stress and Strain Calculations
  • Shape functions
  • Homogenization of Problems
  • Case study Problem

42D Element

  • Stiffness Matrix of 2D element
  • Nodal Displacements
  • Nodal DOF
  • Stress and Strain Calculations
  • Shape functions
  • Stiffness matrix of CST and LST elements

53D Element and FEA characteristics

  • Stiffness Matrix of 3D element
  • Nodal Displacements
  • Stress and Strain Calculations
  • Different non-linearities in FEA
  • Basic types of material models
  • Factors influencing Solution of FEA

6Basics of LS-DYNA

  • Introduction to LS-DYNA
  • Material Models
  • Meshing techniques
  • Solving Simple Static Problems

7Equations of Motion

  • Study of Basic Equations of Motions
  • Mass Matrix, Stiffness Matrix
  • Time dependance of Analysis
  • Physics of Crash
  • Study of Mathematics related to Crash

8Explicit and Implicit FEA

  • What are Explicit and Implicit analysis
  • Basic Applications
  • Advantages and disadvantages of methods
  • Difference between Explicit and implicit methods
  • Time steps, Hourglassing and Contacts Used
  • Mathematical approaches used by Explicit and Implicit analysis

9LS-DYNA

Case Studies:

  • Crush Analysis of Square/rectangular Tube Using LS-DYNA 
  • Impact of ball on Steel thin Plate

10Applications of Implicit and Explicit FEA

  • When to use Explicit FEA and When to use Implicit FEA?
  • Case Studies:
    • Hydroforming of Automotive Structures
    • Modelling of Shape memory alloys
    • Quasi-static Analysis of Structures


Some of the projects that you will work on

Project 1

Highlights

Study of cantilever beam of 1000 mm span with 1000 N load at the end with different cross-sections like circular, rectangular, triangular and I section. To find out the effect of cross-section on the deflection of the beam. The problem has to be solved using FEA technique and results has to be verified using strength of material deflection equations.

Project 2

Highlights

Study of crushing of square  steel tube using LS-DYNA. Tube is crushed between fixed and moving plate. Moving plate is moving at 1 m/s. Material properties of steel is given. Estimate the results. Further Triangular, Hexagonal tubes of same cross-sectional area are placed between the same plates. Find the best configuration of tube among all. Further the length of the tube, thickness of the tube will be varied as per given conditions to find out the effect of all these parameters on performance of tube.

Project 3

Highlights

Study of impact of steel ball on aluminium plate of 5 mm thickness using LS-DYNA. The ball is moving at velocity of 10 m/s. Material properties of aluminium plate and steel ball is given. Estimate the resistance offered by the plate. Further change the velocities of ball to find the minimum velocity the plate can with stand without rupture. Further change the material of plate to steel and magnesium and evaluate the results.


2. Automotive Safety Standards

1Introduction to vehicle crash and safety

  • Introduction
  • Active and passive safety 
  • Physics in crash and safety 
  • Evolution of safety in automobiles 
  • Importance of crash and safety in everyday automobile 
  • Occupant and Pedestrian safety 

2Active Safety Features

  • Introduction to Active safety  
  • Anti-lock Braking system 
  • Stability and Traction Control 
  • Brake assist & Emergency braking 
  • Collision avoidance
  • Autonomous cruise control 
  • Cameras (Image processing)
  • Car to Car connect 

3Passive safety Features (structure)

  • Introduction 
  • Crumple zones - Front
  • Crumple zones - Rear
  • B pillar structure and doors
  • Roof structure
  • Materials for passive safety
  • ICE vs Electric car structures  

4Passive safety Features (Occupant & Pedestrian)

  • Introduction
  • Seats and Seat belts 
  • Driver and Passenger Airbag
  • Head restraint 
  • ISOFIX child mount 
  • Door trims 
  • Occupant monitoring 
  • Pedestrian safety 

5Future of Crash and safety

  • Introduction 
  • Autonomous (driverless) vehicles 
  • Regulation changes 
  • Hyperloop 
  • Crash and safety in future mobility 

6Introduction to Dummies

  • Introduction and history of using dummies 
  • Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD)
  • Why crash test dummies? 
  • Male, Female and Child dummies 
  • Pedestrian dummies 
  • Development and manufacturing of dummies

7Occupant dummy Injuries

  • Introduction 
  • Frontal impact injuries (Hybrid III) 
  • Side impact injuries (SID)
  • Head injuries during crash 
  • Whiplash injury (rear impact)
  • Child injuries during crash 
  • Out Of Position (OOP)

8Pedestrian Injuries

  • Introduction 
  • Pedestrian leg impact 
  • Pedestrian Head impact
  • Pedestrian safety 


3. Design for Crash & Score Calculation

1Introduction to NCAP Regulations across the globe

  • Introduction to US-NCAP, EURO-NCAP, ASEAN-NCAP, J-NCAP,  GLOBAL-NCAP, IIHS, BNVSAP etc. 
  • Understanding ratings & types of test (frontal, offset, side, pole, roll over  etc). Adult & child protection
  • How different OEMs fair with various NCAP regulations across the world  with respect to different models. 
  • How IIHS contributes to the promotion of purchase of safer cars from the  market. 
  • A brief introduction of Active and Passive Safety and how it contributes  to the overall safety rating of a vehicle.

2Introduction to a car structure and materials

  • A brief introduction to different vehicle body types (hatch, sedan,  cabriolet, coupe etc). 
  • Introduction to vehicle platforms 
  • Introduction to various car body structural components and their  functions (A pillar, Front cross member, sill, B Billar etc).
  • Introduction to materials and how materials are used for structure design  & development (IS standards, J standard etc).
  • Advanced materials and technologies used in the industry to achieve  crash ratings (tailored weld blank, aluminums).
  • How do composites fair in crash structures.

3Design strategy for frontal crash and calculation of sections

  • FMVSS 208 
  • Benchmarking design strategy of other OEMs
  • Understanding Baseline model
  • Mass-energy-deflection equations and graphs.
  • Lumped mass spring model.
  • Crash energy management
  • Conservation of momentum and energy
  • Buckling load, section modulus, bending moment
  • Stiffness and strength
  • Collapse modes.

4Design of engine compartment for frontal impact

  • Strategy (Absorb, Distribute or transfer) 
  • Design of front crash cross member, engine mount long member & fire wall.

5Design of driver and passenger cockpit for frontal impact

  • Design of A pillar, Floor, Cross car beam, roof long member, B pillar, Front and rear door 
  • How seat, seat belt and airbag are controlled during frontal impact and their contribution.

6Design strategy for side, Pole crash, roll over protection

  • FMVSS 214, 216 
  • B Pillar, floor, door design strategy for side & pole crash protection. Rear Impact protection & whiplash effect 
  • Design for roof crash and roll over protection.

7Design strategy for pedestrian protection

  • FMVSS 216 
  • Design of Hood/bonnet, front fascia/bumper for pedestrian protection

8Design of EV for crashworthiness

  • EV structure architecture 
  • Hazards of battery pack- Electrocution & Short circuit fire
  • Design strategy of battery protection for impact
  • Design strategy for motor and other HV component for impact protection

9The future of crashworthiness of cars

  • The future of crashworthy vehicles: Stringent government rules, high speed crash, 20% offset, advanced material usage.


Some of the projects that you will work on

Project 1

Highlights

Option1:  

Engine compartment Architecture/structure planning for a 40% offset crash at 64Kmph for a 1200 kg  hatchback. Strategy used and why. Design of sections (length, breadth & width) and materials used. 

Option 2: 

Cockpit Architecture/structure planning for a 40% offset crash at 64Kmph for a 1200 kg hatchback. Strategy  & Lumped mass model of engine compartment will be given. Design of sections (length, breadth & width) and materials used.

Project 2

Highlights

Option1:  

B Pillar, Floor & roof Architecture/structure planning for side & pole crash for a 1200 kg hatchback. Strategy  used and why. Design of sections (length, breadth & width) and materials used. 

Option 2: 

Battery protection for Pole and side crash. Design of floor and battery structure.


4. Crashworthiness Analysis using HyperMesh and Radioss

1Basics of Crashworthiness Physics, FEA Concepts and CAE Process

In the first module you will learn about different types of analysis, the difference between Implicit and Explicit analysis, different non-linearities and along with this, you will also bust the myth that a strong structure equates safe structure’ by teaching you about:

  • Meaning of crash safety for a vehicle

  • Law of conservation of energy applied to a car crash

  • Basic concepts of FEA such as linear-nonlinear, static-dynamic, Implicit- Explicit analysis, their differences and the guidelines on how to choose a method for a given FEA problem

2Introduction to HyperMesh

HyperMesh is one of the most popular Finite Element Preprocessor used to generate meshes of complex models. In this module, you will learn the GUI of HyperMesh, various elements available in FEA like 1D, 2D and 3D elements, how to choose the element depending on the geometry by covering topics such as:

  • Overview of Pre-Processors and their importance in FEA Processes

  • Primary introduction to GUI of HyperMesh, toolbars and basic operations

3Geometry Editing in HyperMesh

Learning to mesh geometries is an important step in performing FEA. Therefore, we will extensively cover the topic by which the students can understand, geometry clean up, tools available for geometry cleanups, 

  • Using an edited geometry to generate mid-surface and appropriate 2D mesh with regards to mesh flow, trias and mesh size, by various methods

  • Using the geometry tools to clean up the distorted geometry

4Meshing – 1D, 2D & 3D and Mesh Quality Check

In this section, you will learn what is 1D, 2D, and 3D meshing, what is mesh quality and how to improve them and then exporting the meshed model to the specific solver.

  • Using an edited geometry to generate mid-surface and appropriate 2D mesh with regards to mesh flow, trias and mesh size, by various methods

  • Using the geometry to create a 3D mesh using various methods

  • Meaning of mesh quality and ways to control and improve it

  • Types of 1D elements, their specifications, and creation

  • Exporting a meshed model from HyperMesh in the specified solver format

5Introduction to Radioss

In this section, you will learn what is an Explicit Solver, what is an engine file and a starter file and their significance and also what is an out file and how to read this out file.

  • Overview of Radioss- An Explicit FEA solver for crashworthiness

  • Essential Radioss input files, their significance, and format

  • Overview of output files and their significance

6Element Properties and Materials

In this section, you will learn about the various element formulations available for different types of elements in the Radioss and their applications, how to assign thickness for the component and also you will understand various parameters available in the property card and their significance. Similarly, you will also learn various material cards available in Radioss and their use cases along with their failure criteria.

  • Application of thickness and dimensional properties, integration points for 1D, 2D and 3D elements

  • Study and application of concepts such as material intrinsic properties, failure criteria, non-linearity, plasticity, and hyper-elasticity into a material model

7HyperCrash, HyperView and HyperGraph

In this section, you will learn a new application that is developed by Altair exclusively to set up the crash simulations and along with this, you will be learning the GUI of Hypercrash. You will also be introduced to Hyperview and HyperGraph where you will learn how to post-process the simulation results

  • Introduction to HyperCrash, a specialized pre-processor for Radioss

  • Introduction to HyperView and HyperGraph as post-processing tools in the FEA process

8Interface (Contact) Modelling

Interface modelling will be a complex topic that you can find in any solver. Here you will learn what is a contact and how it works, what are the different parameters you need to look into while defining a contact in a model, what are the different types of contacts and their use cases. 

  • Concepts of an interface between given components, penalty formulation method, contact stiffness, gap, penetration, interference, and tied interfaces

  • Creation of various types of interfaces and removing any errors or interferences

9Boundary Conditions Setup

In this section, you will understand how to set up a proper boundary condition for any given simulation, what are the different types of loading conditions and different types of joints available in Radioss

  • Setup of static and dynamic loading conditions such as velocity, acceleration, a constraint on degree of freedom, rigid walls, spot welds, and seam welds

10Simulation Control

In this section, you will learn about the concept of the time step and how it can be optimized to increase the speed of the simulation and also the concept of mass scaling. You will also understand the various control cards available in Radioss and their use cases.

  • Control of simulation in terms of the time step, accuracy, run time, types of outputs

11Checks and Debugs

In this section, you will the various check you to do before running the simulation and also you will understand how to debug a simulation along with its approach 

  • Checking and debugging any errors in the model using diagnostic methods

12Airbag and its Modelling in FEA

In this section, you will exclusively learn about the Physics of an airbag in crash scenarios and how to model them in Radioss. You will be learning about two types of Airbags ( with vent and without vent ) 

  • Concept of an airbag in FEA, its modelling methods and challenges with an example

13Occupant Injury Criteria

In this section, you will learn about how the injury criteria are calculated in the actual crash test environment and how it affects the rating of the vehicle. You will also learn about the dummy standards that are used in crash testing. 

  • Various occupant injury criteria currently being considered while determining the crashworthiness and safety performance of a car

14Crashworthiness Standards

In this section, you will learn about the standards followed in different ENCAPs 

  • Study of basic elements of most popular crashworthiness standards, the criteria used while determining the crashworthiness performance and ways to measure this in the FEA model


Projects Overview

Frontal Crash

Highlights

  • In this project, you will set up the case for the frontal crash simulation from scratch. 
  • You will also work on post-processing the results and report the Sectional forces at different places in the vehicle to understand force flow, Dashwall intrusion, force at the bumper in the event of a crash and also the peak acceleration at the Rocker.

Side Impact

Highlights

  • In this project, you will set up the case for the side crash simulation from scratch.
  • You will also be post-processing the results and capturing the sectional forces at different places in the vehicle to understand force flow, B-pillar & fuel tank intrusions and the peak velocity at the door.

Roof Crush

Highlights

  • In this project, you will set up the case for the roof crash simulation from scratch. 
  • You will post-process the results and capture the overall strength of the roof. You will also repair the rigid bodies and positioning the impactor.