# Foundations of Thermodynamics and its Industrial Applications

A 3 month course which deals with the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. Emphasis is placed on engineering applications such as power cycles, refrigeration, heat transfer systems, thermodynamics of ideal and real power cycles and devices, property relations and determination, advanced energy considerations etc.

• Domain : MECHANICAL

### A Quick Overview

Thermodynamics is an exciting and fascinating subject that deals with energy, which is essential for the sustenance of life, and thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering curricula worldwide. It has a broad application area ranging from microscopic organisms to common household appliances, vehicles, power generation systems, and even philosophy. This course is a study of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. Emphasis is placed on engineering applications such as power cycles, refrigeration, heat transfer systems, thermodynamics of ideal and real power cycles and devices, property relations and determination, advanced energy considerations etc.

Students will gain the knowledge of understanding the fundamentals of thermodynamics and its application. Students will be able to effectively understand how systems transfer mass and energy to one another and how to measure effectiveness and performance. Students are assumed to have an adequate background in calculus and physics.

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### COURSE SYLLABUS

#### 1Macroscopic Description of Matter

• State Variables
• Atoms & Moles
• Temperature
• Change in Phase
• Ideal Gases
• Ideal Gases Process.

#### 21st Law of Thermodynamic

• Form of Energy
• Energy Transfer (Heat and Work)
• Heat Transfer
• 1st Law Thermodynamic
• Energy Conversion Efficiencies
• Energy and Environment.

#### 3Energy in Closed System / Mass/Energy in Control Volume

Energy in Closed System

• Moving Boundary Work
• Energy Balance
• Specific Heat
• Internal Energy
• Enthalpy and Specific Heat of Idea Gases and Liquids
• Solids

Mass/Energy in Control Volume

• Conversion of Mass
• Energy Flowing in Fluid
• Steady State Flow Analysis
• Engineering Devices
• Unsteady Flow Process

#### 4 2nd Law of Thermodynamic

• Thermal Energy Reservoir
• Heat Engine
• Intro. To Refrigeration and Heat Pump

Perpetual –

• Motion Machine
• Reversible vs Irreversible
• Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

#### 5Entropy

• Basic
• Derivation
• Pure Substance & Entropy
• Isentropic Process
• What is Entropy
• Basic Maxwell Relation
• Entropy and Phase Change
• Entropy Change in Ideal Gas
• Reversible Process
• Entropy Balance and Final Remarks

#### 6Ideal Rankine (Vapor) Cycle #1

• Carnot Cycle
• Rankine Cycle
• Rankine Cycle Efficiency
• Reheat Rankine Cycle
• Regenerative Rankine Cycle
• Cogenerator

#### 7Ideal Rankine (Vapor) Cycle #2

• Carnot Cycle
• Rankine Cycle
• Rankine Cycle Efficiency
• Reheat Rankine Cycle
• Regenerative Rankine Cycle
• Cogenerator

#### 8Ideal Refrigeration and Heat Pump

• Reversed Carnot Cycle
• Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
• Selecting the Right Refrigerant
• Heat Pump Systems
• Muiti-Stage Refrigeration Systems
• Gas Refrigeration’s Cycles

#### 9 Ideal Refrigeration and Heat Pump#2

• Reversed Carnot Cycle
• Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
• Selecting the Right Refrigerant
• Heat Pump Systems
• Muiti-Stage Refrigeration Systems
• Gas Refrigeration’s Cycles

#### 10Ideal Power Cycle

Basic of Power Cycle (Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Stirling, Ericsson, Brayton, and Brayton with intercooling, reheating and Regeneration)

#### 11Ideal Power Cycle #2

Basic of Power Cycle (Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Stirling, Ericsson, Brayton, and Brayton with intercooling, reheating and Regeneration)

#### 12Entropy, Actual and Combine Cycle

• Real (non-isentropic condition) cycle
• Application (Rankine, Refrigeration, power cycle) Combine Cycle

### Projects Overview

Project 1

Highlights

Investigate the effect of reheat pressure on the performance of an ideal Rankine cycle. The maximum and minimum pressure in the cycle are 15MPa and 10kPa, respectively, and steam enters both stages of the turbine at 500C. The reheat pressure is varies from 12.5 to 0.5MPa. Determine the optimum reheat pressure that maximizes the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Project 2

Highlights

A power plant wants to maximize the net thermal efficiency of a gas turbine engine (with regeneration, if possible). The maximum operating temperature is 1425C. The power plant decided to use two compressor (low and high compressor) with intercooling. The overall pressure ratio of the two compressor is 25. The power plant want to removes heat after the low pressure compressor using a refrigeration cycle. The Refrigeration cycle is powered by a Rankine cycle and the Rankine cycle is power by a heat exchanger from the exhaust of the gas turbine cycle (which can also be used for regeneration if possible). Both the Rankine cycle and Refrigeration cycle reject heat at atmospheric condition. Both compressor in the Brayton cycle have isentropic efficiency of 88% and the turbine isentropic efficiency is 92%. The Rankine cycle pump isentropic efficiency is 85% and the steam turbine efficiency isentropic is 87%. The refrigeration compressor isentropic efficiency is 93.8%. The mechanical energy transferred is 90% efficient. Design a schematic of the combine cycle. List and label all the states in each system (temperature, pressure, enthalpy, and entropy). Which working fluid would you recommend for the refrigeration and Rankine cycle? What is the mass flow rate ratio of the refrigeration cycle to Brayton cycle and the mass flow rate ratio of the Rankine to Brayton Cycle? Plot the net thermal efficiency vs low pressure ratio from 2.5 to 10.  Draw a T-s diagram of your combine cycle. Discuss the various cycle attempt to meet your design goal as well as the positive and negative aspect of your design. Please include a sample calculation in your report.

Project 3

Highlights

Steam enters the turbine steadily at 7 Mpa and 25kPa with a velocity of 60m/s and leaves with a quality of 95%. A heat loss 20kJ/kg occurs during the process. Investigate the effects of turbine exit area and turbine exit pressure on the exit velocity and power output of the turbine as the exit pressure varies from 10 kPa to 50 kPa (with the same quality), and the exit area to varies from 1000 cm2 to 3000 cm2. Plot the exit velocity and the power output against the exit pressure for the exit areas of 1000, 2000, and 3000 cm2.

Project 4

Highlights

Consider an ideal steam regenerative Rankine cycle with two feedwater heaters, one closed and one open. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 600°C and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 1.2 MPa for the closed feedwater heater and at 0.6 MPa for the open one. The feedwater is heated to the condensation temperature of the extracted steam in the closed feedwater heater. The extracted steam leaves the closed feedwater heater as a saturated liquid, which is subsequently throttled to the open feedwater heater. Investigate the effects of turbine and pump efficiencies as they are varied from 70% to 100% on the mass flow rate for a net power output of 400 MW and thermal efficiency. Plot the mass flow rate and the thermal efficiency as a function of turbine efficiency for pump efficiencies of 70, 85, and 100%, and discuss the results. Also plot the T-s diagram for turbine and pump efficiencies of 85%.

# Flexible Course Fees

Choose the plan that’s right for you

Basic

2 Months Access

# ₹7000

Per month for 3 months

• Access Duration : 2 Months
• Mode of Delivery : Online
• Project Portfolio : Available
• Certification : Available
• Email Support : Available
• Forum Support : Available

# ₹15000

Per month for 3 months

• Access Duration : Lifetime
• Mode of Delivery : Online
• Project Portfolio : Available
• Certification : Available
• Individual Video Support : 12/ Month
• Group Video Support : 12/ Month
• Email Support : Available
• Forum Support : Available
• Telephone Support : Available
• Dedicated Support Engineer : Available

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### Certification

• Top 5% of the class will get a merit certificate
• Course completion certificates will be provided to all students
• Build a professional portfolio
• E-verified profile that can be shared on LinkedIn

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### Frequently Asked Questions

#### 1Who can take this course?

People with background knowledge in Physic, Chemistry, Fluid Mechanics and Calculus

#### 2What is included in this course?

Study of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. Emphasis placed on engineering applications such as power cycles, refrigeration, and heat transfer systems. Thermodynamics of ideal and real power and refrigeration cycles and devices, property relations and determination, advanced energy considerations.

#### 3What will the student gain from this course?

Student will gain the knowledge of understanding the fundamental to Thermodynamic an it’s application. Student will be able to effectively understand how systems transfer mass and energy to on another and how to measure the effectiveness and performance of a system.

#### 4What software skills are you teaching and how well are these tools used in the industry?

No software skill will be learned.

#### 5What is the real world application for the tools and techniques will you teach in this course?

How to measure, Rankine cycle, power cycle, refrigerator cycle, form proper energy balance and energy transfer technique.

#### 6How is your course going to help me in my path to MS or PhD?

MS/PhD in Aerospace, Mechanical, Chemistry requires the knowledge of thermodynamic.

#### 7How is this course going to help me get a job?

Having knowledge in Thermodynamic will give the edge needed to get a job in Aviation, Automotive, Power industry

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